In 1968, Silicon Valley pioneers Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce left Fairchild Semiconductor to begin a new enterprise in Mountain View, California, called NM Electronics. Within a year, Moore and Noyce changed the name to Integrated Electronics, Inc., or Intel, for short. A third Fairchild expatriate, Andrew Grove, assisted in the role of Chief Operating Office. Grove was appointed CEO in 1987, and led the company through a period of high velocity growth. Intel’s initial products were memory chips. With the introduction of personal computers in the 1980s, the company shifted its R&D focus to the design and manufacture of innovative microprocessors. Millions of units were shipped and incorporated into PCs that found their way to every corner of the globe. Through the 1980s and 1990s, Intel and other leading tech firms rode a wave of progress that originated in Silicon Valley and sent ripples of change outward in all directions. The latter half of the 20th century witnessed the move of high technologies to center stage in every sphere of late modern life—economic, cultural, social, and political.