With financial help from industrialist Arnold Beckman, and at the behest of Frederick Terman, Stanford University’s Dean of Engineering, William Shockley left Bell Labs to establish the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in Mountain View, California. He intended to revolutionize the electronics industry by developing the next generation of solid-state transistors. He recruited a talented crew of young engineers, including Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, who later started Intel, and Eugene Kleiner, who went on to become one of Silicon Valley’s most successful venture capitalists.

Solid state physicists John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs in 1948.

Solid state physicists John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs in 1948.

Historical marker at 381 San Antonio Road in Mountain View, California, the site of the original building, which was demolished on April 3, 2015.

Historical marker at 381 San Antonio Road in Mountain View, California, the site of the original building, which was demolished on April 3, 2015.