Just a year after joining the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory startup, eight of the company’s best engineers became fed up with the boss’s dictatorial management style and decided to strike out on their own. Led by Robert Noyce, they secured funding from defense industry magnate Sherman Fairchild and started Fairchild Semiconductor in 1958, with plans to make transistors out of silicon. For their disloyalty to Shockley, they become known as “The Traitorous Eight.” Fairchild Semiconductor later produced a second wave of entrepreneurs. The practice of spinning out innovative ventures from established companies became a defining feature of Silicon Valley’s business culture. It encouraged the concentration of risk capital in the region and sustained the vitality of local high-tech industries.